Flat Website Design vs Material Design: Which is More Popular?

Female photo editor working in creative office | flat design and material design

The digital landscape constantly evolves, with website design at the forefront of this transformation. As businesses and individuals strive to create engaging, user-friendly online spaces, the choice between different design philosophies can significantly impact the effectiveness and appeal of a website. Flat design and material design are two of the most discussed design styles in recent years. This article delves into the characteristics, popularity, advantages, and disadvantages of these styles, providing insights into how to select the most suitable approach for your web presence.

Introduction to Website Design

Website design encompasses a wide array of knowledge and skills used in the creation and maintenance of websites. It involves not just the aesthetic aspect but also the website’s overall functionality. Designers must consider user experience, ease of use, and accessibility while keeping up with the latest design trends to ensure a website not only looks good but also performs well on various devices. The evolution of web design has seen many trends come and go, but the focus has increasingly shifted towards designs that not only captivate users but also provide them with an intuitive interface. This has led to the emergence and popularity of design philosophies like flat design and material design, each with its own set of principles and goals aimed at enhancing user experience in unique ways. Understanding these design styles is crucial for anyone involved in the digital space, whether you are a designer looking to adopt the most effective approach or a business owner aiming to understand how design choices might affect your online presence.

What is Flat Design?

Flat design is a minimalist design approach that emphasises usability. It features clean, open space, crisp edges, bright colours, and two-dimensional illustrations. This design style rejects skeuomorphic design elements that mimic real-world materials, such as gradients and drop shadows, which were popular in earlier digital design philosophies. Instead, it opts for a simpler, more straightforward presentation that aims to streamline the user experience and reduce unnecessary clutter. The roots of flat design can be traced back to the early days of web development but it gained significant traction and mainstream popularity with the release of various operating systems and interfaces that adopted this style. It is lauded for its high readability and easy navigation, owing to its focus on simplicity and functionality over decorative elements. By stripping away the extras, flat design can make websites appear more efficient and faster-loading, as there are fewer complex elements to render. This design style speaks to a modern ethos where clarity and ease of use are paramount, making it a popular choice for a wide range of applications.

What is Material Design?

Material design, on the other hand, is a design language developed by Google in 2014. It builds on the principles of flat design but incorporates more depth and realism through the use of light and shadow, which mimics the physical world. Material design aims to create clean, modernistic interfaces that focus on user experience through the use of subtle gradients, layering, and animation to provide more depth. This design philosophy is grounded in the idea that digital spaces should mimic the tactile and visual sensations of the material world. Elements are designed to behave like natural materials, with textures and edges that reflect real-world experiences. This approach is intended to make interactions more intuitive by leveraging users’ familiarity with physical objects. Material design also places a strong emphasis on responsive design, ensuring a consistent experience across different device sizes and platforms. It incorporates guidelines for layout, styling, and interactions, making it a comprehensive framework for creating digital interfaces that are visually appealing and easy to use.

The Popularity of Flat Design

Flat design quickly gained popularity for its minimalist and straightforward approach. Many designers and companies embraced its simplicity, which not only made websites appear more modern and trendy but also improved their functionality on various devices. This design style resonated well with the growing demand for responsive design, as its simplicity translates well across different screen sizes, from desktops to smartphones. The adoption of flat design by major companies and platforms has further cemented its popularity. It can be seen in the interfaces of some of the most widely used operating systems and applications, which has helped to familiarise a broad audience with its characteristics and advantages. Despite its widespread adoption, the popularity of flat design has also led to critiques, particularly regarding its potential to oversimplify interfaces, leading to usability issues. However, its influence remains undeniable in the modern web and app design landscapes, where clarity and speed are highly valued.

The Popularity of Material Design

Since its introduction by Google, material design has seen a steady increase in popularity, especially among Android applications and web projects aiming for a consistent appearance across platforms. Its detailed guidelines and resources provided by Google have made it an accessible and attractive option for designers looking to create interfaces that are both beautiful and functional. Material design’s emphasis on depth and realism, through the use of shadows and movements, offers a more engaging user experience compared to the stark minimalism of flat design. It allows for more creativity and flexibility, enabling designers to create a sense of hierarchy and focus without sacrificing the clean aesthetics that users have come to appreciate. The widespread use of material design principles by Google in its products and services has also played a significant role in its popularity. Users interacting with Google’s ecosystem are frequently exposed to material design, which has helped to establish this style as a familiar and trusted design approach.

Pros and Cons of Flat Design


  • Simplicity and Clarity: Flat design’s minimalist approach helps users to focus on the content without being distracted by ornate design elements. This can enhance user engagement and make it easier for users to navigate and find information.
  • Speed and Efficiency: With fewer complex elements to load, websites and applications designed with a flat design philosophy tend to load faster and perform better, especially on mobile devices where speed and efficiency are critical.
  • Responsiveness: The simplicity of flat design translates well across different screen sizes, making it easier to create responsive websites that offer a seamless experience on any device.


  • Usability Issues: The lack of depth and texture in flat design can sometimes lead to confusion about what is clickable or interactive, potentially harming the user experience.
  • Over-Simplicity: While simplicity is one of flat design’s strengths, there is a risk of oversimplifying interfaces to the point where they lose character or fail to convey the intended message effectively.
  • Differentiation: As flat design has become more popular, standing out among a sea of similarly styled websites and applications has become increasingly challenging.

Pros and Cons of Material Design


  • Intuitive Interactions: By mimicking the physical world, material design can make digital interfaces feel more familiar and intuitive to users, potentially improving usability and engagement.
  • Visual Appeal: Material design allows for more depth and texture, which can make interfaces more visually interesting compared to the stark minimalism of flat design.
  • Consistency Across Devices: Google’s comprehensive guidelines for material design help ensure a consistent look and feel across different platforms and devices, enhancing the user experience.


  • Complexity: Implementing material design can be more complex and time-consuming than flat design due to its detailed guidelines and the use of depth and animation.
  • Performance: The additional elements and effects required in material design can lead to slower loading times and reduced performance, particularly on older devices or browsers.
  • Over-Reliance on Guidelines: While Google’s guidelines for material design are comprehensive, there is a risk of designs becoming too uniform or lacking creativity if designers rely too heavily on these rules.

Flat Design vs Material Design: A Comparison

When comparing flat design and material design, it’s clear that both have their strengths and weaknesses. Flat design offers simplicity, speed, and efficiency, making it ideal for applications and websites where performance and ease of use are paramount. On the other hand, material design provides more depth and realism, which can enhance user engagement and make interfaces feel more intuitive. The choice between flat design and material design ultimately depends on the specific goals and requirements of the project. For those prioritising speed and simplicity, a flat design may be the preferred option. However, for projects where user engagement and visual appeal are more important, material design could offer the necessary tools to create a compelling user experience.

Examples of Websites Using Flat Design

Several well-known websites have effectively employed flat design to create clean, modern, and efficient interfaces. These include:

  • Dropbox: The Dropbox website uses flat design principles to create a clear and straightforward user interface that focuses on functionality and ease of use.
  • Airbnb: Airbnb’s website combines flat design with beautiful photography and typography, showcasing how this design style can be both functional and visually appealing.
  • Pinterest: Pinterest’s interface leverages flat design to highlight its content, using simple, clean lines and bright colours to draw attention to the images and ideas shared by its users.

These examples demonstrate how flat design can be utilised to enhance usability and focus on content, making it a powerful tool for creating user-friendly digital experiences.

Examples of Websites Using Material Design

Material design has also been embraced by numerous websites looking to create engaging and intuitive interfaces. Examples include:

  • Google Drive: As a Google product, it’s no surprise that Google Drive features material design, using subtle shadows and animations to create a sense of depth.
  • Evernote: Evernote’s web interface uses material design principles to organise information in a visually appealing and easy-to-navigate manner.
  • Trello: Trello incorporates material design elements to enhance the usability of its project management tools, using layers and textures to differentiate between elements on the page.

These examples illustrate the versatility and visual appeal of material design, showcasing its ability to improve the user experience through more engaging and intuitive interfaces.

How to Choose Between Flat Design and Material Design

Selecting between flat design and material design depends on various factors, including the project’s goals, the desired user experience, and the technical constraints of the platform. Here are some considerations to help make the decision:

  • Project Goals: Consider what you are trying to achieve with your design. If speed and simplicity are your top priorities, flat design might be the way to go. If you want to create a more engaging and intuitive experience, material design could be more suitable.
  • Audience: Think about your target audience and their preferences. A younger, more tech-savvy audience might appreciate the modern look and feel of material design, while a broader audience might benefit from the clarity and simplicity of flat design.
  • Technical Constraints: Evaluate the technical limitations of your project. If performance is a critical concern, the simpler nature of flat design might offer advantages. However, if you have the resources to implement a more complex design without compromising performance, material design offers greater scope for creativity and engagement.

In the end, the best approach might involve elements of both design philosophies, tailored to meet the specific needs of your project and audience.

The Future of Website Design Trends

The digital design landscape is continually evolving, with new trends and technologies emerging all the time. While flat design and material design currently dominate discussions, the future will likely see the emergence of new philosophies that build on these foundations while introducing innovative approaches to interface design. Technologies like virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) are beginning to influence web design, suggesting a future where digital experiences are even more immersive and interactive. Additionally, the increasing importance of accessibility and inclusive design practices is likely to shape how designers approach their work, ensuring that digital spaces are usable and enjoyable for everyone. As we look to the future, the most successful designs will likely be those that can adapt to new technologies and user expectations, offering experiences that are not only visually appealing but also deeply engaging and intuitive.


The debate between flat design and material design is not about which is objectively better but rather about which is more suitable for a given project’s needs. Both design philosophies offer unique advantages and challenges, and the choice between them should be guided by the project’s goals, the needs of the target audience, and the technical constraints of the platform. As the digital landscape continues to evolve, designers and developers must remain adaptable, embracing new trends and technologies while always prioritising the user experience. Whether through flat design, material design, or a combination of both, creating digital experiences that are engaging, intuitive, and accessible will remain the ultimate goal for anyone working in the field of website design.

Blog post by Adam Burrage

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